Links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas

Cities change the world
Selon les Nations unies, près des deux-tiers de la population mondiale habiteront en zone urbaine d’ici 2045. Aujourd’hui estimés à 4,2 milliards, les citadins devraient être 5 milliards en 2030 et 6,7 milliards en 2050.

Au cœur des flux financiers et migratoires mondiaux, les métropoles façonnent les valeurs sociétales et les modes de vie planétaires. Elles sont les vitrines des mutations du monde, créatrices de richesses économiques et d’innovations technologiques.

Depuis le début du III ème millénaire, leurs centres se régénèrent et se densifient, tandis que les périphéries s’...
According to the United Nations, nearly two-thirds of the world's population will live in urban areas by 2045. Today estimated at 4.2 billion, urban dwellers are expected to number 5 billion in 2030 and 6.7 billion in 2050.

At the heart of global financial and migration flows, metropolises are shaping societal values and global ways of life. They are windows onto the changing world, creating economic wealth and technological innovations.

Since the beginning of the third millennium, their centres have been regenerating and becoming more dense, while their peripheries spread out. But their long-term development model is in question. Victims of their own successes, will metropolises eventually become unlivable? What will be the social and environmental sustainability of these urban complexes? How can we articulate attractiveness and quality of life for all?

From New York to Paris Ile-de-France, Tokyo to Copenhagen, Singapore to Medellin, metropolises are inventing, at all scales, new development paths to combine economic competitiveness, urban regeneration, social inclusion, energy frugality and climate resilience. And in doing so, they are changing the world.

This issue of Papers highlights particularly inspiring strategies and initiatives to address the fundamental challenges of (Very) Greater Paris.
Working differently
L'Île-de-France concentre plus de 650 tiers lieux, avec une forte progression depuis 2015. Ce foisonnement est le reflet des dynamiques entrepreneuriales sur le territoire francilien et le développement du télétravail. Il s'agit d'espaces de travail partagés, souvent protéiformes, créatifs, innovants, hybrides et multifonctionnels. Ils accueillent de plus en plus d'indépendants, en privilégiant un travail nomade, à distance et collaboratif. Afin d'illustrer la diversité et la richesse de ces espaces, l'Institut Paris Région sillonne les territoires d'Île-de-France afin de venir à leur rencontre et donner la parole aux acteurs, aux...
The Ile-de-France region is home to more than 650 third places, with strong growth since 2015. This proliferation is a reflection of the entrepreneurial dynamics within the French territory and the development of teleworking. These are shared workspaces, often protean, creative, innovative, hybrid and multifunctional. They welcome more and more independents, favouring itinerant, remote and collaborative working. In order to illustrate the diversity and richness of these spaces, the Institut Paris Région (Paris Region Institute) travels the regions of Ile-de-France to meet them and give voice to the stakeholders, project leaders, managers, facilitators, users and communities that make up these places.
Smart Mauritius: legal framework for Smart Cities
Le Conseil supérieur du notariat a été destinataire d’un appel d’offres de l’Agence de l'Investissement National du Gouvernement de l'Ile Maurice (Economic Development Board/EDB) en 2017.
 
Cet appel d’offres concernait l’élaboration et la mise en œuvre d’un cadre légal et réglementaire, destiné à promouvoir le régime de la copropriété pour organiser au sein des villes la bonne gestion des parties communes et des équipements collectifs (encadrement juridique des Smart Cities).
 
Ce projet s’intégrait dans la stratégie du gouvernement mauricien, dont l’ambition est de...
The Higher Council of French Notariat received a tender from the National Investment Agency of the Government of Mauritius (Economic Development Board/EDB) in 2017.
 
This call for tenders concerned the development and implementation of a legal and regulatory framework intended to promote the condominium regime to organise within cities the proper management of common areas and collective facilities (legal management of Smart Cities).
 
This project was part of the strategy of the Mauritian government, whose ambition is to position Mauritius as an innovative and pioneering island, "Smart Mauritius", in new technologies while integrating the sustainable development dimension.
 
The Consortium, composed in particular of the French notary system, the Order of French Expert Surveyors and Professors, coordinated by the Higher Council of French Notariat, won this tender in mid-February 2018.

Three kits were offered to Mauritian partners:
  • Condominium,
  • Land Association
  • Volume Division.
Each of these kits includes proposals for legislation, through amendments to the Mauritian Civil Code, which have been submitted to Parliament, as well as contract templates.
 
This work was presented to the Mauritian authorities as well as to various professionals on 4 July 2018 in Port Louis.
 
The amendments to the Mauritian Civil Code were adopted by the National Assembly on 9 November 2018 and came into force on 1 March 2019.
Food and agriculture: recommendations for a sustainable and relocated food system
Ce document présente les grandes recommandations élaborées par les membres du Partenariat Français pour la Ville et les Territoires (PFVT), plateforme d’échanges et de valorisation de l’expertise des acteurs français de l’urbain à l’international. Ces documents sont préparés à l’occasion du Forum Urbain Mondial d’Abu Dhabi de février 2020 et du Sommet Afrique-France de juin 2020.
 
Dans un contexte où l’urbanisation et la croissance démographique, l’utilisation des ressources, la qualité de l’air, de l’eau et des sols sont autant de facteurs qui interrogent le système alimentaire actuel, il apparaît...
This document outlines key recommendations formulated by the members of the French Alliance for Cities and Territorial Development (PFVT), the platform for exchange and promotion of French expertise in urban development at the international level. These documents were prepared in the context of the World Urban Forum taking place in Abu Dhabi on February 2020 and the Africa-France Summit on June 2020.
 
 In a context where urbanization and population growth, the use of resources, the quality of air, water and soil are all factors that question the current food system, it seems necessary to consider production and consumption models more respectful of the environment and health. Acting on the food system therefore supposes developing a transversal reflection integrating economic, social, environmental, health, educational, as well as cultural or urban aspects.
 
Faced with a globalized food system, the alliance of territories and the mobilization of local authorities and all citizens are key conditions for the transition to a more sustainable food and agricultural model. However, to that end, agriculture and food issues need to be thoroughly rethought and transition strategies need to be implemented. It is with this in mind that the "Food and Agriculture" working group met, in order to make sustainable food a pivotal point in the development of territories by relying on the relocation of the food system.
food challenges
Manger est un plaisir et un art. L’Unesco ne s’y est pas trompée en classant en 2010 le repas gastronomique des Français au patrimoine culturel immatériel de l’humanité. Pour autant, s’alimenter en quantité et en qualité suffisantes reste un défi majeur pour les métropoles. Selon les Nations unies, les citadins représenteront près des deux tiers de la population mondiale dans vingt-cinq ans. Le modèle alimentaire urbain doit inventer de nouvelles façons de produire, transporter et s’organiser pour répondre aux défis socio-économiques et environnementaux posés aux métropoles. Entre locavorisme et mondialisation, comment produire...
Eating is a pleasure and an art. Unesco made no mistake in classifying the French gastronomic meal as an intangible cultural heritage of humanity in 2010. However, food in sufficient quantity and quality remains a major challenge for metropolises. According to the United Nations, urban dwellers will account for nearly two-thirds of the world's population in 25 years. The urban food model must invent new ways of producing, transporting and organising to meet the socio-economic and environmental challenges facing metropolises. Between local supply and globalisation, how can we produce more and better with less?

From field to fork, the Papers of the Paris Region Institute give the floor to all the players in the food system. Researchers, academics, public and private decision-makers and civil society enrich, through their testimonies, the discussion to design another way to properly feed the urban individual in Ile-de-France and in metropolises around the world.
Towards sustainable airport areas
Dans un contexte de mondialisation croissante des échanges, d’intensification des flux internationaux de marchandises et de personnes, et de hausse globale du trafic aérien qui en découle, les aéroports internationaux constituent des atouts stratégiques pour le développement et l’attractivité des pays et territoires qui les accueillent et qu’ils desservent. La présence d’une place aéroportuaire génère des interactions multiples, entrainant des externalités positives (retombées économiques en termes d’emplois, fiscalité locale, desserte en transports…) ou inversement négatives : pollution atmosphérique, nuisances sonores, congestion...
In a context of increasing globalisation of trade, increasing international flows of goods and people, and the resulting global increase in air traffic, international airports are strategic assets for the development and attractiveness of the countries and territories that host and serve them. International airports and their surrounding areas are of increasingly strategic importance for the development of the metropolitan regions they serve. They are also evolving and becoming distinctive economic and urban places in their own right. At the same time, airport activity has a significant impact on the surrounding environment and generates positive externalities such as economic spin-off in terms of employment opportunities, taxes paid from airport business, transport services, etc. or negative externalities such as air pollution, noise, traffic congestion or agricultural land consumption, etc. Airport areas therefore face many challenges of their own, which need to be addressed at this territorial scale.
 
The Institut Paris Region launched the « sustainable airports” initiative in 2015 with the support of the NGO Metropolis. Three workshops on this theme were organized between Paris and Atlanta. This report stems from this initiative. It is divided into seven thematic chapters, dealing with the major challenges for sustainable airports, making recommendations and highlighting good practices, basing itself on the collective work carried out by the workshops ‘participants and additional research led by the project team.
Caen, nature city
A dix-huit kilomètres de la mer, à la confluence entre l’Orne et de l’Odon, Caen s’affirme comme une ville entre mer et nature.
Structurée par un fleuve côtier partiellement canalisé, la ville fut fortement marquée au nord par l’industrie métallurgique, tout en préservant au sud l’accès direct à la nature par sa vaste prairie inondable qui pénètre au cœur de la ville.
Aujourd’hui connue pour sa plaine agricole et la qualité de sa pierre calcaire, Caen puise en réalité son identité dans les cours d’eau et les prés normands, ce qui en fait une ville naturellement structurée par sa trame verte et bleue. Par sa...
Eighteen kilometres from the sea, at the confluence of the Orne and the Odon, Caen is most definitely a city between sea and nature.
Structured by a partially channelled coastal river, the city was heavily affected to the north by the metallurgical industry, while preserving to the south direct access to nature by its vast flood meadow that goes right into the heart of the city.
Today known for its agricultural plain and the quality of its limestone, Caen actually draws its identity from Normandy’s rivers and meadows, making it a city naturally structured by its green and blue corridors.
With its greenspace policy and its work to preserve ecological continuity, Caen has outpaced legal expectations for promoting biodiversity, nature and landscapes.
Industrial demonstrators for the sustainable city: Rêve de Scènes Urbaines
Le démonstrateur industriel pour la ville durable Rêve de Scènes urbaines, piloté par VINCI, Véolia et Artelia, propose une démarche originale de coopération entre les acteurs publics et privés de la ville pour expérimenter et produire des solutions urbaines innovantes. Il s’inscrit initialement dans un territoire en constante mutation, Plaine Commune, lui-même situé au cœur du Grand Paris.
 
Pour fonctionner, le démonstrateur s’appuie sur un écosystème ouvert, dont les objectifs sont de mettre en œuvre :
  • une plate-forme partenariale d’innovation urbaine,
  • un Living lab...
The industrial demonstrator for the sustainable city Rêve de Scènes Urbaines (Dream of Urban Scenes), led by VINCI, Véolia and Artelia, offers an original approach with cooperation between public and private stakeholders in the city to experiment and produce innovative urban solutions. It is initially part of a constantly changing region, Plaine Commune, itself located in the heart of Greater Paris.
 
To function, the demonstrator relies on an open ecosystem whose objectives are to implement:
  • a partnership platform for urban innovation,
  • a Living Lab of rebuilding the city on itself,
  • a showcase of the city's French know-how in the Plaine Commune region.
 
Every year, 150 ideas are collected and handed over to Plaine Commune. The region selects ideas that can help implement its strategic development plans.
The ideas and experiments produced as part of Rêve de Scènes Urbaines are intended for dissemination. In France, eight partner regions have joined the approach in order to benefit from ideas and to able to launch local experiments. The dynamics of the Rêve de Scènes Urbaines demonstrator can be increased thanks to the contribution of innovative companies from these regions.
 
Abroad, Rêve de Scènes Urbaines is part of the export efforts of the Strategic Sector Agreement "Industries for Construction", welcoming foreign delegations to France, and feeding local contacts of French companies with the association’s work.
300 participants at the 1st Free Transport City Meetings
Vous n’avez pas pu passer à côté : depuis le 1er septembre 2018, l’agglomération dunkerquoise est devenue la plus grande agglomération française à proposer un réseau de transports en commun entièrement gratuit à ses 200 000 habitants et à tous ses visiteurs. Dans la foulée, Dunkerque accueillait les premières Rencontres des villes du transport gratuit.
 
L’événement, le premier du genre en France, a attiré plus de 300 personnes – élus, techniciens, usagers, militants associatifs – venues des quatre coins du pays, voire de plus loin (Pologne, Allemagne, Estonie, Suisse, Brésil…).
...
You couldn't miss it: since 1 September 2018, the Dunkirk conurbation has become the largest French city to offer a completely free public transport network to its 200,000 inhabitants and all its visitors. In the process, Dunkirk hosted the first Free Transport City Meetings.
 
The event, the first of its kind in France, attracted more than 300 people - elected officials, experts, users, community activists - from all over the country, and even further afield (Poland, Germany, Estonia, Switzerland, Brazil...).
Invited to discover Dunkirk’s new bus network and the major urban developments carried out throughout the city, participants also attended roundtable discussions and expert presentations. A wonderful moment to reflect, question and exchange views before (perhaps) going free themselves.
The regional food project of Caen Normandy Metropole
Le projet alimentaire territorial de Caen Normandie Métropole a été lancé en octobre 2017 ; pendant une année, une démarche participative impliquant tous les acteurs du territoire a permis d'élaborer des orientations stratégiques qui ont été reconnues par le label du Programme national de l'alimentation (PNA) en février 2019.
 
 Par l'organisation d'ateliers thématiques et de visites de terrain localement (ferme urbaine, marché de gros, association d'insertion par le maraîchage, agriculteur permettant la cueillette aux particuliers, cantines proposant des menus végétariens....), les acteurs du...
Caen Normandy Metropole’s regional food project was launched in October 2017. For one year, a participatory approach involving all the regional players led to the development of strategic guidelines that were recognised by the National Food Programme (NFP) label in February 2019.
 
By organising thematic workshops and field visits locally (urban farm, wholesale market, association providing work in market gardening, farmer allowing individuals to do their own picking, canteens offering vegetarian menus and so on), stakeholders in the Caen region now have a qualitative and quantitative regional food diagnostic and routemaps to promote short food circuits.
 
The challenge now lies in implementing this ambitious 14-action plan, aimed at bringing consumers and food producers closer together in six strategic areas:

I - Implementing metropolitan food governance;
II - Taking food into account in planning and land use;
III - Supporting the local economy (distribution platform, vegetable provision, urban compost etc);
IV - Strengthening collaboration and social bonding (sustainable food house);
V - Promoting local sourcing in communities;
VI - Communicating about local food identity and Normandy gastronomy, raising awareness, educating and training.

The FRUGAL (Urban Forms and Food Governance) action research programme run with the University of Caen between 2016 and 2020 is proving to be a quality methodological support to this innovative community approach to food: researchers present the results of their research to elected officials each year and the participatory methodologies of communities at all levels (city, urban community, metropolitan cluster) allow for new partnerships between researchers and stakeholders.