Urban sprawl

CITYLAB Project: urban logistics experiments
CITYLAB est un projet européen qui s’est déroulé de 2015 à 2018 dans le cadre du programme Horizon 2020 de la Commission européenne.
 
 Le projet était mené par TOI, l’institut d’économie des transports norvégien. CITYLAB est basé sur la notion de "living lab", ou laboratoire vivant, que l’on peut définir comme une instance de concertation, conception et réalisation qui accompagne un projet.
 
 Sept "Living Laboratories" ont été identifiés à Oslo, Paris, Rome, Londres, Bruxelles, Amsterdam et Southampton. La Ville de Paris était également associée au projet et y...
CITYLAB is a European project that took place from 2015 to 2018 as part of the European Commission's Horizon 2020 programme.
 
The project was led by TOI, the Norwegian Institute for Transportation Economics. CITYLAB is based on the "living lab" concept, which can be defined as a forum for consultation, design and implementation that supports a project.
 
Seven "Living Laboratories" have been identified in Oslo, Paris, Rome, London, Brussels, Amsterdam and Southampton. The City of Paris was also involved in the project and took part in it in close liaison with IFSTTAR.
 
In each of these laboratories, an original experiment in urban logistics was conducted, evaluated and, if deemed relevant, proposed to other European cities.
 
For Paris, the urban logistics initiative conducted and evaluated under CITYLAB had the objective of reducing the negative externalities associated with logistics sprawl.
 
The project has led to the development of a new model of logistics hotel: an innovative building mixing urban activities (offices, residential, commercial, leisure) and logistics activities that promote clean modes of transport.
 
Two buildings were involved, one in operation (Beaugrenelle logistics space), the other under construction during the period of the CITYLAB project (it has been in operation since June 2018). This is the Chapelle International project, north of Paris. One of CITYLAB's main areas of work was the establishment of an Observatory for Data and Trends in Urban Freight, for which the IFSTTAR team was responsible.
 
The Observatory produced three deliverables, in 2016, 2017 and 2018, on data and trends related to logistics sprawl, e-commerce deliveries and service mobility.
Cities change the world
Selon les Nations unies, près des deux-tiers de la population mondiale habiteront en zone urbaine d’ici 2045. Aujourd’hui estimés à 4,2 milliards, les citadins devraient être 5 milliards en 2030 et 6,7 milliards en 2050.

Au cœur des flux financiers et migratoires mondiaux, les métropoles façonnent les valeurs sociétales et les modes de vie planétaires. Elles sont les vitrines des mutations du monde, créatrices de richesses économiques et d’innovations technologiques.

Depuis le début du III ème millénaire, leurs centres se régénèrent et se densifient, tandis que les périphéries s’...
According to the United Nations, nearly two-thirds of the world's population will live in urban areas by 2045. Today estimated at 4.2 billion, urban dwellers are expected to number 5 billion in 2030 and 6.7 billion in 2050.

At the heart of global financial and migration flows, metropolises are shaping societal values and global ways of life. They are windows onto the changing world, creating economic wealth and technological innovations.

Since the beginning of the third millennium, their centres have been regenerating and becoming more dense, while their peripheries spread out. But their long-term development model is in question. Victims of their own successes, will metropolises eventually become unlivable? What will be the social and environmental sustainability of these urban complexes? How can we articulate attractiveness and quality of life for all?

From New York to Paris Ile-de-France, Tokyo to Copenhagen, Singapore to Medellin, metropolises are inventing, at all scales, new development paths to combine economic competitiveness, urban regeneration, social inclusion, energy frugality and climate resilience. And in doing so, they are changing the world.

This issue of Papers highlights particularly inspiring strategies and initiatives to address the fundamental challenges of (Very) Greater Paris.
Smart Mauritius: legal framework for Smart Cities
Le Conseil supérieur du notariat a été destinataire d’un appel d’offres de l’Agence de l'Investissement National du Gouvernement de l'Ile Maurice (Economic Development Board/EDB) en 2017.
 
Cet appel d’offres concernait l’élaboration et la mise en œuvre d’un cadre légal et réglementaire, destiné à promouvoir le régime de la copropriété pour organiser au sein des villes la bonne gestion des parties communes et des équipements collectifs (encadrement juridique des Smart Cities).
 
Ce projet s’intégrait dans la stratégie du gouvernement mauricien, dont l’ambition est de...
The Higher Council of French Notariat received a tender from the National Investment Agency of the Government of Mauritius (Economic Development Board/EDB) in 2017.
 
This call for tenders concerned the development and implementation of a legal and regulatory framework intended to promote the condominium regime to organise within cities the proper management of common areas and collective facilities (legal management of Smart Cities).
 
This project was part of the strategy of the Mauritian government, whose ambition is to position Mauritius as an innovative and pioneering island, "Smart Mauritius", in new technologies while integrating the sustainable development dimension.
 
The Consortium, composed in particular of the French notary system, the Order of French Expert Surveyors and Professors, coordinated by the Higher Council of French Notariat, won this tender in mid-February 2018.

Three kits were offered to Mauritian partners:
  • Condominium,
  • Land Association
  • Volume Division.
Each of these kits includes proposals for legislation, through amendments to the Mauritian Civil Code, which have been submitted to Parliament, as well as contract templates.
 
This work was presented to the Mauritian authorities as well as to various professionals on 4 July 2018 in Port Louis.
 
The amendments to the Mauritian Civil Code were adopted by the National Assembly on 9 November 2018 and came into force on 1 March 2019.
Condominium kit
En 2050, les trois-quarts de la population mondiale vivront dans les villes. L’expansion urbaine se faisant actuellement horizontalement, il convient de favoriser les constructions collectives verticales, et donc de relever le défi du système de la copropriété dans le monde.
 
Le Conseil supérieur du notariat, l’Ordre des géomètres-experts et la FNAIM ont réalisé un kit de copropriété.
 
Cet ouvrage collectif associe de nombreux experts : notaires, juristes, économistes, universitaires, géomètres-experts, spécialistes du foncier et de l’urbanisme.
 
...
By 2050, three-quarters of the world's population will live in cities. With urban expansion currently taking place horizontally, vertical collective constructions should be encouraged, and so the challenge of the global condominium system should be met.
 
The Higher Council of French Notariat, the Order of Expert Surveyors and FNAIM have created a condominium kit.
 
This collective work brings together many different experts: notaries, lawyers, economists, academics, expert surveyors, and specialists in land and urban planning.
 
This kit is a practical tool that incorporates a draft Framework Act, a declarative act model of co-ownership of a building by apartments, an example of co-ownership regulations and management rules, including financial ones. The proposed solutions are adaptable to the needs and cultures of different countries.
 
The condominium kit is intended mainly for states, international organisations (UN-Habitat, World Bank etc) and all global land stakeholders (including notaries, lawyers, surveyors, trustees and property managers, civil servants) facing the issue of vertical urban planning development.
 
The experts behind this kit can also intervene in the field as advisers.
Towards sustainable airport areas
Dans un contexte de mondialisation croissante des échanges, d’intensification des flux internationaux de marchandises et de personnes, et de hausse globale du trafic aérien qui en découle, les aéroports internationaux constituent des atouts stratégiques pour le développement et l’attractivité des pays et territoires qui les accueillent et qu’ils desservent. La présence d’une place aéroportuaire génère des interactions multiples, entrainant des externalités positives (retombées économiques en termes d’emplois, fiscalité locale, desserte en transports…) ou inversement négatives : pollution atmosphérique, nuisances sonores, congestion...
In a context of increasing globalisation of trade, increasing international flows of goods and people, and the resulting global increase in air traffic, international airports are strategic assets for the development and attractiveness of the countries and territories that host and serve them. International airports and their surrounding areas are of increasingly strategic importance for the development of the metropolitan regions they serve. They are also evolving and becoming distinctive economic and urban places in their own right. At the same time, airport activity has a significant impact on the surrounding environment and generates positive externalities such as economic spin-off in terms of employment opportunities, taxes paid from airport business, transport services, etc. or negative externalities such as air pollution, noise, traffic congestion or agricultural land consumption, etc. Airport areas therefore face many challenges of their own, which need to be addressed at this territorial scale.
 
The Institut Paris Region launched the « sustainable airports” initiative in 2015 with the support of the NGO Metropolis. Three workshops on this theme were organized between Paris and Atlanta. This report stems from this initiative. It is divided into seven thematic chapters, dealing with the major challenges for sustainable airports, making recommendations and highlighting good practices, basing itself on the collective work carried out by the workshops ‘participants and additional research led by the project team.
300 participants at the 1st Free Transport City Meetings
Vous n’avez pas pu passer à côté : depuis le 1er septembre 2018, l’agglomération dunkerquoise est devenue la plus grande agglomération française à proposer un réseau de transports en commun entièrement gratuit à ses 200 000 habitants et à tous ses visiteurs. Dans la foulée, Dunkerque accueillait les premières Rencontres des villes du transport gratuit.
 
L’événement, le premier du genre en France, a attiré plus de 300 personnes – élus, techniciens, usagers, militants associatifs – venues des quatre coins du pays, voire de plus loin (Pologne, Allemagne, Estonie, Suisse, Brésil…).
...
You couldn't miss it: since 1 September 2018, the Dunkirk conurbation has become the largest French city to offer a completely free public transport network to its 200,000 inhabitants and all its visitors. In the process, Dunkirk hosted the first Free Transport City Meetings.
 
The event, the first of its kind in France, attracted more than 300 people - elected officials, experts, users, community activists - from all over the country, and even further afield (Poland, Germany, Estonia, Switzerland, Brazil...).
Invited to discover Dunkirk’s new bus network and the major urban developments carried out throughout the city, participants also attended roundtable discussions and expert presentations. A wonderful moment to reflect, question and exchange views before (perhaps) going free themselves.
Caen, nature city
A dix-huit kilomètres de la mer, à la confluence entre l’Orne et de l’Odon, Caen s’affirme comme une ville entre mer et nature.
Structurée par un fleuve côtier partiellement canalisé, la ville fut fortement marquée au nord par l’industrie métallurgique, tout en préservant au sud l’accès direct à la nature par sa vaste prairie inondable qui pénètre au cœur de la ville.
Aujourd’hui connue pour sa plaine agricole et la qualité de sa pierre calcaire, Caen puise en réalité son identité dans les cours d’eau et les prés normands, ce qui en fait une ville naturellement structurée par sa trame verte et bleue. Par sa...
Eighteen kilometres from the sea, at the confluence of the Orne and the Odon, Caen is most definitely a city between sea and nature.
Structured by a partially channelled coastal river, the city was heavily affected to the north by the metallurgical industry, while preserving to the south direct access to nature by its vast flood meadow that goes right into the heart of the city.
Today known for its agricultural plain and the quality of its limestone, Caen actually draws its identity from Normandy’s rivers and meadows, making it a city naturally structured by its green and blue corridors.
With its greenspace policy and its work to preserve ecological continuity, Caen has outpaced legal expectations for promoting biodiversity, nature and landscapes.
Industrial demonstrators for the sustainable city: Rêve de Scènes Urbaines
Le démonstrateur industriel pour la ville durable Rêve de Scènes urbaines, piloté par VINCI, Véolia et Artelia, propose une démarche originale de coopération entre les acteurs publics et privés de la ville pour expérimenter et produire des solutions urbaines innovantes. Il s’inscrit initialement dans un territoire en constante mutation, Plaine Commune, lui-même situé au cœur du Grand Paris.
 
Pour fonctionner, le démonstrateur s’appuie sur un écosystème ouvert, dont les objectifs sont de mettre en œuvre :
  • une plate-forme partenariale d’innovation urbaine,
  • un Living lab...
The industrial demonstrator for the sustainable city Rêve de Scènes Urbaines (Dream of Urban Scenes), led by VINCI, Véolia and Artelia, offers an original approach with cooperation between public and private stakeholders in the city to experiment and produce innovative urban solutions. It is initially part of a constantly changing region, Plaine Commune, itself located in the heart of Greater Paris.
 
To function, the demonstrator relies on an open ecosystem whose objectives are to implement:
  • a partnership platform for urban innovation,
  • a Living Lab of rebuilding the city on itself,
  • a showcase of the city's French know-how in the Plaine Commune region.
 
Every year, 150 ideas are collected and handed over to Plaine Commune. The region selects ideas that can help implement its strategic development plans.
The ideas and experiments produced as part of Rêve de Scènes Urbaines are intended for dissemination. In France, eight partner regions have joined the approach in order to benefit from ideas and to able to launch local experiments. The dynamics of the Rêve de Scènes Urbaines demonstrator can be increased thanks to the contribution of innovative companies from these regions.
 
Abroad, Rêve de Scènes Urbaines is part of the export efforts of the Strategic Sector Agreement "Industries for Construction", welcoming foreign delegations to France, and feeding local contacts of French companies with the association’s work.
Caen Peninsula: reconquering a territory
Le projet urbain Caen Presqu’île offre de nouvelles perspectives à l'aire de Caen la mer. Quartiers durables, circulations douces, ambiance fluviale, environnement végétalisé, activités économiques, culturelles et sportives…promettent un cadre et une qualité de vie inégalée.
Les communes de Caen, Mondeville et Hérouville Saint-Clair, la Communauté Urbaine Caen la mer, la Région Normandie et le syndicat mixte des Ports de Normandie, travaillent conjointement depuis 2010 à la mise en œuvre d’un projet de renouvellement urbain ambitieux sur le site de la Presqu’île, structurant pour le territoire.
Le projet urbain...
The Caen Peninsula urban project offers new perspectives to the area of Caen la Mer. Sustainable neighbourhoods, soft transport modes, river atmosphere, green environment, economic, cultural and sporting activities all promise an unrivalled environment and quality of life.
 
The municipalities of Caen, Mondeville and Hérouville Saint-Clair, the Caen la Mer Urban Community, the Normandy Region and the Normandy Ports Joint Union have been working together since 2010 to implement an ambitious urban renewal project on the site of the peninsula, which is structuring for the region.
 
The Caen Peninsula urban project covers an operational perimeter of 300 hectares. The member communities of the order group agreed in 2016 on the need to set up a Major Interest Project (MIP), a memorandum of understanding created by Law No. 2014-366 of 24 March 2014 for access to housing and renovated urban planning provided for under Articles L.350-1 to 7 of the Urban Planning Code. The content of the MIP identifies the four structuring urban development projects currently in progress or planned for the future whose aim is to renew the strategic sector of the peninsula in an ambitious and sustainable way:
 
- The Peninsula Point
- La Nouveau Basin joint development zone in Caen
- The Hérouville peninsula JDZ
- The Calix JDZ in Mondeville
Energy transition and urban planning video: how to move towards sustainable cities?
Croiser les enjeux de l’environnement, du climat, de l’énergie et des réseaux avec les politiques de l’urbanisme, de la mobilité et de l’habitat est essentiel pour construire des projets de territoires durables. L’aménagement des territoires est le levier le plus efficace pour réussir la transition énergétique dans la mesure où il impacte directement la demande en énergie.
 
Il peut par exemple créer des villes dépendantes de la voiture et très minéralisées, ne permettant pas de réguler les températures, ou tout au contraire des villes économes et résilientes offrant un cadre de vie attractif à leurs...
Combining environmental, climate, energy and network issues with urban planning, mobility and housing policies is essential for building sustainable regional projects. Land use is the most effective lever for successful energy transition as it directly impacts energy demand.
For example, it can create car-dependent, highly concrete cities which do not regulate temperatures, or, on the contrary, economical, resilient cities offering an attractive living environment for their inhabitants.
Thus, a well-organised region, sufficiently dense which makes the most of its local resources, can at the same time reduce its energy needs, produce its own energy and adapt to the climate of the future. The urban planning code now offers opportunities that communities can seize on.
This video, produced by Agam and DREAL Provence Alpes-Côte d'Azur, in association with the region's technical services, is a relevant way of presenting legal levers and making them possible by local examples of successfully integrating the energy transition into urban planning. Elected officials, experts and planning stakeholders, it's up to us!