Developing countries

Douala Sustainable City: Sustainable development and enhancement of the Makèpè-Missoké neighbourhood
Le projet Douala Ville Durable concerne l’aménagement du quartier Makèpè – Missoké, situé sur une ancienne décharge en zone inondable. La visée principale, définie dans la continuité du projet de drainage pluvial et en cohérence avec la politique de la ville, est de faire de Douala une ville durable et résiliente, tout en assurant son développement économique.
Dans cette perspective, un projet de restructuration et de valorisation de la zone humide et de lutte contre la pauvreté a été mis en œuvre par la Communauté Urbaine de Douala. Les efforts déployés pour préserver les espaces verts et les ressources naturelles ont...
The Douala Ville Durable project concerns the development of the Makèpè - Missoké neighbourhood, located on a former landfill site in a floodplain area.
The main objective, defined in the continuity of the rainwater drainage project and in line with the city's policy, is to make Douala a sustainable and resilient city while ensuring its economic development.
With this in mind, a project to restructure and enhance the wetland and combat poverty has been implemented by the Douala Urban Community.
 
Efforts to preserve green spaces and natural resources are thus aimed at transforming this floodplain into an asset for the development of the neighbourhood:
- on the one hand, by making the site a "green lung" to combat heat islands,
- on the other hand, by generating economic activities such as market gardening, recycling or even home renovation.
 
This project was designed to be replicable: a piece work of capitalising on knowledge and experience is therefore planned to disseminate it on similar sites successfully.
Intercommunal governance in the field of water and sanitation in Cameroon
Disposant d’une multiplicité d’équipements, les communes du Mbam et de l’Inoubou connaissaient de profondes difficultés en termes de maîtrise d’ouvrage en eau et en assainissement, principalement des problèmes de rénovation, d’entretien et de gestion des infrastructures. Pour y faire face, plusieurs communes avaient décidé de mettre en commun leurs moyens et de définir une stratégie départementale de l’eau et de l’assainissement. Ce projet a été lancé dans le but d’accompagner la structuration d’un service public.
Afin de développer une approche partenariale efficiente, les acteurs ont choisi de constituer un syndicat...
With a wide range of facilities, the communes of Mbam and Inoubou faced major difficulties in terms of water and sanitation project management, mainly problems of renovation, maintenance and infrastructure management. To deal with this, several communes had decided to pool their resources and define a departmental water and sanitation strategy.
This project was launched with the aim of supporting the structuring of a public service. To develop an efficient partnership approach, the stakeholders chose to form an intercommunal union (SYCOMI), thus bringing legal innovation in Cameroon.
This union then took responsibility for the technical and administrative aspects, which is why training was provided to strengthen the skills of the key players. Emphasis was also placed on citizen participation through the involvement of user committees and willingness to pay for studies to ensure the sustainability of the service. This experience of intercommunal governance is a pilot project in Cameroon, which has aroused the interest of Cameroonian institutional bodies and is now spreading.
The communes in Lékié were inspired by this to create their own union (SYNCOLEK), with the support and expertise of SYCOMI and SDEA (Syndicat Départemental des Eaux et de l'Assainissement Alsace-Moselle) to develop a public water and sanitation service in their turn.
Recommendations for a creative city and a smart planning
Ce document présente les grandes recommandations élaborées par les membres du Partenariat Français pour la Ville et les Territoires (PFVT), plateforme d’échanges et de valorisation de l’expertise des acteurs français de l’urbain à l’international. Ces documents sont préparés à l’occasion du Forum Urbain Mondial d’Abu Dhabi de février 2020 et du Sommet Afrique-France de juin 2020.
 
Centré sur l’intégration de la dimension créative dans la ville, le groupe de travail « Ville créative et planification intelligente » considère la ville créative comme une ville inspirante et une ville d’opportunités,...
This document outlines key recommendations formulated by the members of the French Alliance for Cities and Territorial Development (PFVT), the platform for exchange and promotion of French expertise in urban development at the international level. These documents were prepared in the context of the World Urban Forum taking place in Abu Dhabi on February 2020 and the Africa-France Summit on June 2020.
 
Focusing on the integration of the creative dimension in the city, the "Creative City and Smart Planning" working group considers the creative city as an inspiring city and a city of opportunities, shaped by its inhabitants and evolving over time.
 
The creative city must therefore be seen as the vector of a shared capital around which all the actors of a territory come together, participating in the creation of a common vision of the city, the urban project, and planning.
 
Planning the city in order to make it creative, smart and sustainable - therefore implies ensuring a balance between the projected planning model ; territorial characteristics and local governance ; designing public spaces and uses as places of creativity and inclusion -  or to enhance culture and heritage in order to turn them into opportunities for economic development, while avoiding tourism at risk for sites and the exclusion of local populations.
Citizenship and social innovation
Ce document présente les grandes recommandations élaborées par les membres du Partenariat Français pour la Ville et les Territoires (PFVT), plateforme d’échanges et de valorisation de l’expertise des acteurs français de l’urbain à l’international. Ces documents sont préparés à l’occasion du Forum Urbain Mondial d’Abu Dhabi de février 2020 et du Sommet Afrique-France de juin 2020.
 
Centré sur l’inclusion et la valorisation du citoyen comme acteur clé de la planification urbaine, le livret du groupe de travail « Citoyenneté et innovation sociale » réinterroge les modèles de gouvernance de nos villes....
This document outlines key recommendations formulated by the members of the French Alliance for Cities and Territorial Development (PFVT), the platform for exchange and promotion of French expertise in urban development at the international level. These documents were prepared in the context of the World Urban Forum taking place in Abu Dhabi on February 2020 and the Africa-France Summit on June 2020.
 
Focused on the inclusion and enhancement of the citizen as a key player in urban planning, the booklet of the working group “Citizenship and social innovation” re-examines the governance model of our cities. Faced to increasing inequalities and socio-spatial segregation, it is urgent to redefine citizen participation, by promoting participatory mechanisms, by giving women a place in the city, or by encouraging the presence of marginalized actors within public decision-making bodies.
 

To that end, the cities of tomorrow still have to take up many challenges, in order to prioritize citizen initiatives in their governance, and turn them into drivers of their development, which is currently intended to be more inclusive and more sustainable.

Cities change the world
Selon les Nations unies, près des deux-tiers de la population mondiale habiteront en zone urbaine d’ici 2045. Aujourd’hui estimés à 4,2 milliards, les citadins devraient être 5 milliards en 2030 et 6,7 milliards en 2050.

Au cœur des flux financiers et migratoires mondiaux, les métropoles façonnent les valeurs sociétales et les modes de vie planétaires. Elles sont les vitrines des mutations du monde, créatrices de richesses économiques et d’innovations technologiques.

Depuis le début du III ème millénaire, leurs centres se régénèrent et se densifient, tandis que les périphéries s’...
According to the United Nations, nearly two-thirds of the world's population will live in urban areas by 2045. Today estimated at 4.2 billion, urban dwellers are expected to number 5 billion in 2030 and 6.7 billion in 2050.

At the heart of global financial and migration flows, metropolises are shaping societal values and global ways of life. They are windows onto the changing world, creating economic wealth and technological innovations.

Since the beginning of the third millennium, their centres have been regenerating and becoming more dense, while their peripheries spread out. But their long-term development model is in question. Victims of their own successes, will metropolises eventually become unlivable? What will be the social and environmental sustainability of these urban complexes? How can we articulate attractiveness and quality of life for all?

From New York to Paris Ile-de-France, Tokyo to Copenhagen, Singapore to Medellin, metropolises are inventing, at all scales, new development paths to combine economic competitiveness, urban regeneration, social inclusion, energy frugality and climate resilience. And in doing so, they are changing the world.

This issue of Papers highlights particularly inspiring strategies and initiatives to address the fundamental challenges of (Very) Greater Paris.
The notary, serving land security around the world
Un système fiable de sécurisation des transactions immobilières repose sur 3 piliers :

1.Une identification précise du bien immobilier sur des plans, (cadastre, ortho-photos ou photo satellite) et une vérification de l’identité et de la capacité juridique des personnes.

2.Un registre immobilier qui répertorie l’ensemble des actes juridiques concernant tous les biens immobiliers de toutes les personnes titulaires d’un droit de nature foncière.

3.Un acte incontestable qui offre une sécurité juridique quasi parfaite (vente, partage , donation…).
 ...
A reliable system for securing real estate transactions is based on three pillars:

1. Accurate identification of the property on the plans (cadastre, ortho-photos or satellite photo) and verification of the identity and legal capacity of individuals.

2. A real estate register that lists all legal acts concerning all real estate of all persons holding a land right.

3. An indisputable act that offers almost perfect legal certainty (sale, sharing, donation etc).
 
The interest of these three pillars:
 
  • legal: determine with certainty who owns what and under what conditions,
  • social: enable the poorest to defend their rights to the land and have access to public infrastructure,
  • economic: avoid a long and costly conflict for the landowner and encourage access to credit,
  • tax: make public authorities aware of the identity of persons with a property right so they can collect tax.
The issuing of title deeds is the core business of the notary. That’s why the Notariat has decided to act and become heavily involved in actions in support of land reforms.
 
This action is also part of the general policy carried out by the French Notariat to contribute, in addition to other stakeholders in the land arena, and respecting cultural diversity, to the establishment of a rule of law, a cornerstone of economic development.
 
Since June 2007, the Title Commission has been bringing together initiatives and coordinating joint action plans.
 
On 10 November 2009, a symposium was held at the Higher Council of French Notariat under the high patronage of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, bringing together all the players in this field around the theme "Land Security and Economic Development: The title of property ownership in developing countries".
 
The International Union of Notaries organised six international conferences in January 2012 in Burkina Faso, in January 2013 in Mexico, in December 2014 in Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam, in December 2017 in Niamey and Thessaloniki, and in June 2018 in Sarajevo on the subject.
Condominium kit
En 2050, les trois-quarts de la population mondiale vivront dans les villes. L’expansion urbaine se faisant actuellement horizontalement, il convient de favoriser les constructions collectives verticales, et donc de relever le défi du système de la copropriété dans le monde.
 
Le Conseil supérieur du notariat, l’Ordre des géomètres-experts et la FNAIM ont réalisé un kit de copropriété.
 
Cet ouvrage collectif associe de nombreux experts : notaires, juristes, économistes, universitaires, géomètres-experts, spécialistes du foncier et de l’urbanisme.
 
...
By 2050, three-quarters of the world's population will live in cities. With urban expansion currently taking place horizontally, vertical collective constructions should be encouraged, and so the challenge of the global condominium system should be met.
 
The Higher Council of French Notariat, the Order of Expert Surveyors and FNAIM have created a condominium kit.
 
This collective work brings together many different experts: notaries, lawyers, economists, academics, expert surveyors, and specialists in land and urban planning.
 
This kit is a practical tool that incorporates a draft Framework Act, a declarative act model of co-ownership of a building by apartments, an example of co-ownership regulations and management rules, including financial ones. The proposed solutions are adaptable to the needs and cultures of different countries.
 
The condominium kit is intended mainly for states, international organisations (UN-Habitat, World Bank etc) and all global land stakeholders (including notaries, lawyers, surveyors, trustees and property managers, civil servants) facing the issue of vertical urban planning development.
 
The experts behind this kit can also intervene in the field as advisers.
Accra Mobile - participatory mapping of small-scale transport
A Accra, 80% des déplacements motorisés sont assurés par les Trô-Trô. Ces véhicules - des minibus de 10 à 19 passagers - sont exploités par des opérateurs privés qui s'organisent le long de lignes. En 2015, le gouvernement Ghanéen a créé les DoTs (Departement of Transports) au sein de quatre municipalités d'Accra. Ces organismes - notamment en charge de la régulation des taxis et des Trô-Trô au sein de la capitale Ghanéenne - ont procédé à un appel à projet pour cartographier le transport artisanal et ainsi développer les outils nécessaires à l'analyse du fonctionnement du réseau de Trô-Trô. L'objectif second était de développer une...
In Accra, 80% of motorised trips are provided by the Trô-Trô. These vehicles - minibuses for 10 to 19 passengers - are run by private operators who organise their service along routes. In 2015, the Ghanaian government created DoTs (Transport Departments) in four Accra municipalities. These bodies - notably in charge of the regulation of taxis and Trô-Trô in the Ghanaian capital - have issued a call for projects to map small-scale transport and thus develop the tools necessary to analyse the functioning of the Trô-Trô network. The second objective was to develop an innovative approach around digital common places - via the use of OpenSreetMap tools - in order to simplify the process of data collection, processing and formatting.
 
The project was divided into three phases:
 
Phase 1 - line identification
Concordia University students identified the 300 lines that make up Accra's transportation system and then, on a sample of 60 lines, conducted studies on the frequency of line departures.
 
Phase 2 - data collection
The Transitec design office, with the help of the Jungle Bus team, worked to formalise an automated data collection and processing protocol, before formatting the data describing the Trô-Trô transport offer.
 
Phase 3 - data processing and publication
Following the identification of lines during phases 1 and 2 of the project, Ghanaian OpenStreetMap contributors began recording the location of stops and GPS tracks of the Trô-Trô lines directly on OpenStreetMap using OSM Tracker.
 
Data quality was monitored throughout the collection process by the Jungle Bus team. An OSM validation tool (Jungle Bus ruleset) was created for this purpose, allowing the plug-in to send alerts to collection supervisors when an error or omission is spotted. The OSM2GTFS tool finally created a GTFS dataset from GPRS routes extracted from OSM and a schematic map of Accra's Trô-Trô network was created.
OPAL - big data supporting development
Depuis quelques années, le monde vit une « révolution des données ». L’utilisation du téléphone, de réseaux sociaux, de paiements électroniques, dans nos activités personnelles et sociales crée de plus en plus de données qui sont de plus en plus précises (“big data“). Celles-ci sont en majorité produites, stockées et exploitées par des entreprises privées : opérateurs télécoms, banques, plateformes web et réseaux sociaux, etc. Or, en matière notamment de santé, d'éducation, d'agriculture ou de transport par exemple, les opportunités sont considérables pour mieux diagnostiquer grâce à ces données les besoins des populations et des...
In recent years, the world has been experiencing a "data revolution." The use of telephones, social networks and electronic payments in our personal and social activities creates more and more data that is more and more accurate ("big data"). Most of this data is produced, stored and operated by private companies: telecom operators, banks, web platforms and social networks, etc. However, in the areas of health, education, agriculture and transport, for example, there are considerable opportunities to better diagnose the needs of populations and regions through this data. Can big data be used ethically and securely to produce information for the public interest and sustainable development goals (SDGs)? This challenge is the ambition of the OPAL project (for "Open algorithms").
 
Launched in December 2016, the project is being developed by a consortium of public, private and academic partners around the Data-Pop Alliance think tank, MIT Media Lab, Orange, Imperial College London and the World Economic Forum.
 
AFD's funding of 1.5 million euros means an initial version of the solution has begun to be deployed, as well as pilot operations in Colombia and Senegal, in partnership with national statistics agencies and two major telecoms operators (Sonatel in Senegal and Telefónica in Colombia). This funding provides a boost to a project already supported by the World Bank and the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development Data (GPSDD).
 
Recommendations for resilient territories adapted to climate change
Ce document présente les grandes recommandations élaborées par les membres du Partenariat Français pour la Ville et les Territoires (PFVT), plateforme d’échanges et de valorisation de l’expertise des acteurs français de l’urbain à l’international. Ces documents sont préparés à l’occasion du Forum Urbain Mondial d’Abu Dhabi de février 2020 et du Sommet Afrique-France de juin 2020.
 
Le changement climatique est une réalité devenue un enjeu majeur pour notre société. Face à une urbanisation mondiale croissante, à l’exploitation intensive des ressources naturelles et à la fréquence des évènements...
This document outlines key recommendations formulated by the members of the French Alliance for Cities and Territorial Development (PFVT), the platform for exchange and promotion of French expertise in urban development at the international level. These documents were prepared in the context of the World Urban Forum taking place in Abu Dhabi on February 2020 and the Africa-France Summit on June 2020.
 
Climate change is a reality that has become a major issue for our society. Faced with growing global urbanization, the intensive exploitation of natural resources and the frequency of extreme weather events, it is urgent to mobilize at all levels of our cities and organizations, to strengthen the resilience of territories and of populations living in them.
 
To that end, it is necessary to consider far-reaching changes of urban and economic models, and to involve all the actors of the territory, to cooperate in a dynamic of anticipation, management or reconstruction in the event of a crisis.
 
It is within this framework that the “Resilience and adaptation to climate change” working group was gathered, in order to reflect on tools and solutions to make our cities and territories more resilient, more inclusive and more sustainable.