Planning

Health and urban planning
En matière d’urbanisme réglementaire, l’agence a élaboré dans un premier temps en 2014 un guide « PLU et santé environnementale », qui permet d’identifier à travers 12 déterminants de santé les leviers réglementaires pour intégrer au mieux ces enjeux lors de l’élaboration du document d’urbanisme.
 
Les 12 déterminants de santé retenus sont les suivants :
 
  • Alimentation en eau potable et protection de la ressource
  • Assainissement des eaux usées et gestion des eaux pluviales
  • Eaux de baignade
  • Installations classées pour la protection...
In terms of regulatory urban planning, the agency first developed in 2014 a guide called "PLU and environmental health", which helps identify through 12 health determinants the regulatory levers to best integrate these issues into the drafting of the planning document.
 
The 12 health determinants selected are:
 
  • Drinking water supply and resource protection
  • Wastewater remediation and stormwater management
  • Bathing water
  • Facilities classified for environmental protection, including livestock buildings
  • Polluted sites and soils
  • Noise
  • Air quality
  • Urban heat islands
  • Power lines
  • Food and local agriculture
  • Physical activity and access to the city for all
  • Degraded habitat
A "vade-mecum" was then carried out in 2019 for the attention of communities in the Nouvelle Aquitaine region, for better consideration of health-environmental issues when developing a Local Intercommunal Urban Planning Plan.
 
This work is part of the implementation of the RHEP (Regional Health-Environment Plan) in Nouvelle Aquitaine. It summarises the approach by health determinants, and complements it by taking into account a number of regional specificities: population profiles, economic activities, exposure levels and pathologies with suspected or proven links with environmental factors.
 
In addition, in collaboration with the EHESP (Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Santé Publique de Rennes/School of Higher Studies in Public Health in Rennes), a-urba has also developed a guide for integrating health into development projects (ISadOrA project).
 
Some 15 "operational keys" have been identified to help developers implement all health issues within the timeline of a development operation.
 
The results of this study were shared in a working group of 35 stakeholders from both the world of urban planning and health at the national level.
 
Using the ISO 37101 sustainable city management method
Un travail associant 51 pays a permis de définir une méthode de définition et de mise en œuvre de stratégies urbaines intégrées, robustes et agiles : la norme de management ISO 37101, publiée en 2016.
 
La méthode internationale ISO 37101 est un instrument de management puissant qui permet de maximiser les retombées d'un projet politique de développement territorial durable.

A l'échelle d'un projet, elle permet de renforcer la vision stratégique du projet, et favorise la collaboration et l'engagement des équipes. A une échelle élargie, elle facilite les échanges d'expériences...
Work involving 51 countries has led to the definition of a method to define and implement integrated, robust and agile urban strategies: the ISO 37101 management standard, published in 2016.
 
The international ISO 37101 method is a powerful management tool that maximises the benefits of a sustainable regional development policy project.

At the individual project level, it reinforces the strategic vision of the project and promotes collaboration and commitment among teams. On a broader scale, it facilitates the exchange of experience through a shared vocabulary and common methods.

The Ministry of Ecological Transition supports the use of this method by national and local institutions as evidenced by the EcoCité approach, which aimed in 2018 to conduct an experiment to use ISO 37101 with 5 pilot ÉcoCités, with a view to designing training in the integrated management of sustainable urban projects.
 
Agency 360 provides:
 
  • a project management assistance mission for the ministry (with XN Conseil, Neoclide, Efficacity and CEREMA),
  • uses it on a daily basis on its urban design and project management missions, within its training (engineering and management of smart cities in Bridges and Roads),
  • and participates in the development of this method within the national commission for sustainable and intelligent cities and regions (CNVTDI) of AFNOR (French Standards Association).
Gran Santo Domingo sustainable urban mobility plan
Mobilise Your City (MYC) est une initiative globale pour le climat qui promeut la planification intégrée de la mobilité urbaine ; elle vise à maximiser le potentiel de réduction des émissions des gaz à effet de serre (-50 % d’ici 2050), en particulier dans les villes des pays du Sud qui accueilleront la majeure partie de la croissance urbaine à venir.
 
Dans le cadre de cette initiative, le Grand Saint Domingue fait partie des 100 agglomérations qui se sont engagées à définir et mettre en œuvre un Plan de Mobilité Urbaine ambitieux. Cette initiative bénéficie de l’appui technique et financier de l’AFD  (...
Mobilise Your City (MYC) is a global climate initiative that promotes integrated urban mobility planning. It aims to maximise the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (by 50% by 2050), particularly in cities in southern countries that will see most of the future urban growth.
As part of this initiative, Gran Santo Domingo is one of 100 cities that have committed to define and implement an ambitious Urban Mobility Plan. This initiative has the technical and financial support of AFD (French Development Agency) and the MYC programme.
The mission of the SYSTRA group was to support the national authority in charge of planning and improving mobility conditions in the region for 16 months.
This assistance consisted of:
 
- Providing technical support for the definition of an ambitious action plan,
- Developing digital planning tools,
- Building the capacity of local stakeholders,
- Setting up a participatory process that allows, during the study period, the setting up of real cooperation at the Gran Santo Domingo scale (INTRANT, municipalities, ministries, operators etc).
TechTown: making digital a vehicle for employment and local development in mid-sized cities
Le réseau de coopération TechTown a été lancé dans le cadre du programme européen URBACT III. Rassemblant 11 villes européennes de taille intermédiaire, l’objectif de TechTown a été d’explorer les moyens par lesquels les villes petites et moyennes peuvent maximiser le potentiel de création d’emplois de leur économie numérique.
 
Ce réseau de planification intégrée a eu pour objet d’examiner, de manière collaborative :

- les avantages pouvant être tirés d’initiatives nationales ou de grandes villes ;
- le rôle et la viabilité des grappes d’entreprises numériques ;...
The TechTown cooperation network was launched as part of the European URBACT III programme. Bringing together 11 mid-sized European cities, TechTown's goal has been to explore ways in which small and medium-sized cities can maximise the job creation potential of their digital economy.
 
The purpose of this integrated planning network was to collaboratively examine:

- the benefits that can be derived from national or large city initiatives;
- the role and viability of clusters of digital businesses;
- how mid-sized cities can help businesses access digital skills and innovations they need to start up, grow and compete.

The Clermont metropolis has developed, with its local ecosystem, an integrated action plan focused on the structuring and development of cultural and creative industries. Taking advantage of a regional singularity around the music and image sector, this roadmap highlights digital technology as a useful lever to attract and train new talent, create skilled jobs that cannot be relocated and develop value added to the region, particularly in terms of image and visibility.
Urbayiti: urban governance and resilient towns in Haiti
Le projet Urbayiti – “Gouvernance urbaine et villes résilientes“ vise à promouvoir le développement économique et social d’Haïti et à favoriser la résilience des populations, à travers l'amélioration de la qualité de vie des villes.
 
Urbayiti contribue ainsi à la consolidation du cadre institutionnel pour renforcer la gouvernance du secteur et améliorer la gestion et la planification des villes. Il informe et sensibilise la population sur les enjeux de développement urbain et souligne l’ambition du gouvernement haïtien de mener une démarche urbaine intégrée.
 
Le projet intervient à...
The Urbayiti project "Urban Governance and Resilient Towns" aims to promote Haiti's economic and social development and foster people's resilience by improving the quality of urban life.
 
Urbayiti is thus helping consolidate the institutional framework to strengthen governance in the sector and improve the management and planning of towns. It informs and raises people’s awareness of urban development issues and underlines the Haitian government's ambition to pursue an integrated urban approach.
 
The project operates on three levels:
 
- National for strategic, institutional and normative actions;
- Departmental (South and Grand Anse) and metropolitan (Port-au-Prince Metropolitan Area) for strategic actions, training and studies;
- Local (Port-au-Prince, Jérémie and Les Cayes) for infrastructure and services and capacity building, job creation and social engineering.
The actions carried out focus on three areas:
- strengthening urban governance;
- developing urban plans;
- carrying out urban planning operations.
Covenant of Mayors in Sub-Saharan Africa (CoM SSA): fighting climate change in Africa
La « Convention des Maires pour l’Afrique subsaharienne » (CoM ASS) est une initiative financée par l’Union européenne pour soutenir les villes d’Afrique subsaharienne dans leur lutte contre le changement climatique et dans leurs efforts pour assurer l’accès à l’énergie propre de leurs populations.

Elle a plusieurs objectifs :

- Renforcer les capacités des villes à développer et à utiliser des instruments de planification et d’exécution dans les domaines de l’énergie, de la mobilité et de l’urbanisme,
- Améliorer le cadre juridique et institutionnel des autorités locales...
The Covenant of Mayors for Sub-Saharan Africa (CoM SSA) is a European Union-funded initiative to support cities in sub-Saharan Africa in their fight against climate change and their efforts to ensure access to clean energy for their people.

It has several objectives:

- Strengthen the capacity of cities to develop and use planning and implementation instruments in the fields of energy, mobility and urban planning,
- Improve the legal and institutional framework of local authorities and their technical and resource mobilisation capabilities,
- Promote political ownership and dissemination of best practices.

The first two phases of the initiative have built a strong network of cities committed to the fight against climate change, with 178 signatory cities and municipalities. The third phase will allow cities to develop their Sustainable Energy and Climate Access Action Plans (SECAAP), implement energy access, climate change mitigation and adaptation projects, and also strengthen partnerships between cities and regions.
The spatial and energy impact of data centres on regions
Le projet de recherche ENERNUM donne une image du paysage des data centers en France et dans trois territoires des États-Unis, représentant chacun des situations spatiales et énergétiques différentes (ville dense, espace périphérique, rural). Facteur potentiel de déséquilibre des systèmes énergétiques locaux, objets dont l'accumulation urbaine et la dispersion rurale questionnent, les data centers font ici l'objet d'une analyse approfondie pour mieux appréhender les nouveaux territoires numériques en construction, les solidarités énergétiques à construire et les alliances d'acteurs à mettre en place.

Le...
The ENERNUM research project gives an image of the data centre landscape in France and three regions of the United States, each representing different spatial and energy situations (dense city, peripheral space, rural). A potential factor in the imbalance of local energy systems, objects which urban accumulation and rural dispersion bring into question, data centres are the subject of an in-depth analysis to better understand the new digital regions under construction, energy solidarity to create and stakeholder alliances to be put in place.

The report addresses three issues:

- energy conservation and the use of renewable energies;
- integration of data centres into local systems through mutualisation, exchange, connections and less infrastructure redundancy;
- architecture and spatial integration of infrastructure within cities and regions.
 
The research offers up elements to understand, get to grips with and decode both the data centre object, as well as its interactions with the environments into which it fits in its architectural and urban dimensions, in relation to energy, economic and governance issues.
Douala Sustainable City: Sustainable development and enhancement of the Makèpè-Missoké neighbourhood
Le projet Douala Ville Durable concerne l’aménagement du quartier Makèpè – Missoké, situé sur une ancienne décharge en zone inondable. La visée principale, définie dans la continuité du projet de drainage pluvial et en cohérence avec la politique de la ville, est de faire de Douala une ville durable et résiliente, tout en assurant son développement économique.
Dans cette perspective, un projet de restructuration et de valorisation de la zone humide et de lutte contre la pauvreté a été mis en œuvre par la Communauté Urbaine de Douala. Les efforts déployés pour préserver les espaces verts et les ressources naturelles ont...
The Douala Ville Durable project concerns the development of the Makèpè - Missoké neighbourhood, located on a former landfill site in a floodplain area.
The main objective, defined in the continuity of the rainwater drainage project and in line with the city's policy, is to make Douala a sustainable and resilient city while ensuring its economic development.
With this in mind, a project to restructure and enhance the wetland and combat poverty has been implemented by the Douala Urban Community.
 
Efforts to preserve green spaces and natural resources are thus aimed at transforming this floodplain into an asset for the development of the neighbourhood:
- on the one hand, by making the site a "green lung" to combat heat islands,
- on the other hand, by generating economic activities such as market gardening, recycling or even home renovation.
 
This project was designed to be replicable: a piece work of capitalising on knowledge and experience is therefore planned to disseminate it on similar sites successfully.
Intercommunal governance in the field of water and sanitation in Cameroon
Disposant d’une multiplicité d’équipements, les communes du Mbam et de l’Inoubou connaissaient de profondes difficultés en termes de maîtrise d’ouvrage en eau et en assainissement, principalement des problèmes de rénovation, d’entretien et de gestion des infrastructures. Pour y faire face, plusieurs communes avaient décidé de mettre en commun leurs moyens et de définir une stratégie départementale de l’eau et de l’assainissement. Ce projet a été lancé dans le but d’accompagner la structuration d’un service public.
Afin de développer une approche partenariale efficiente, les acteurs ont choisi de constituer un syndicat...
With a wide range of facilities, the communes of Mbam and Inoubou faced major difficulties in terms of water and sanitation project management, mainly problems of renovation, maintenance and infrastructure management. To deal with this, several communes had decided to pool their resources and define a departmental water and sanitation strategy.
This project was launched with the aim of supporting the structuring of a public service. To develop an efficient partnership approach, the stakeholders chose to form an intercommunal union (SYCOMI), thus bringing legal innovation in Cameroon.
This union then took responsibility for the technical and administrative aspects, which is why training was provided to strengthen the skills of the key players. Emphasis was also placed on citizen participation through the involvement of user committees and willingness to pay for studies to ensure the sustainability of the service. This experience of intercommunal governance is a pilot project in Cameroon, which has aroused the interest of Cameroonian institutional bodies and is now spreading.
The communes in Lékié were inspired by this to create their own union (SYNCOLEK), with the support and expertise of SYCOMI and SDEA (Syndicat Départemental des Eaux et de l'Assainissement Alsace-Moselle) to develop a public water and sanitation service in their turn.
CITYLAB Project: urban logistics experiments
CITYLAB est un projet européen qui s’est déroulé de 2015 à 2018 dans le cadre du programme Horizon 2020 de la Commission européenne.
 
 Le projet était mené par TOI, l’institut d’économie des transports norvégien. CITYLAB est basé sur la notion de "living lab", ou laboratoire vivant, que l’on peut définir comme une instance de concertation, conception et réalisation qui accompagne un projet.
 
 Sept "Living Laboratories" ont été identifiés à Oslo, Paris, Rome, Londres, Bruxelles, Amsterdam et Southampton. La Ville de Paris était également associée au projet et y...
CITYLAB is a European project that took place from 2015 to 2018 as part of the European Commission's Horizon 2020 programme.
 
The project was led by TOI, the Norwegian Institute for Transportation Economics. CITYLAB is based on the "living lab" concept, which can be defined as a forum for consultation, design and implementation that supports a project.
 
Seven "Living Laboratories" have been identified in Oslo, Paris, Rome, London, Brussels, Amsterdam and Southampton. The City of Paris was also involved in the project and took part in it in close liaison with IFSTTAR.
 
In each of these laboratories, an original experiment in urban logistics was conducted, evaluated and, if deemed relevant, proposed to other European cities.
 
For Paris, the urban logistics initiative conducted and evaluated under CITYLAB had the objective of reducing the negative externalities associated with logistics sprawl.
 
The project has led to the development of a new model of logistics hotel: an innovative building mixing urban activities (offices, residential, commercial, leisure) and logistics activities that promote clean modes of transport.
 
Two buildings were involved, one in operation (Beaugrenelle logistics space), the other under construction during the period of the CITYLAB project (it has been in operation since June 2018). This is the Chapelle International project, north of Paris. One of CITYLAB's main areas of work was the establishment of an Observatory for Data and Trends in Urban Freight, for which the IFSTTAR team was responsible.
 
The Observatory produced three deliverables, in 2016, 2017 and 2018, on data and trends related to logistics sprawl, e-commerce deliveries and service mobility.